Kidney Disease in Singapore
Singapore has the fourth highest incidence of kidney failure in the world with almost 5 new such patients diagnosed every day. The main causes of end-stage kidney failure are diabetes and hypertension and one in 9 adult Singaporeans have diabetes while 1 out of every 4 adult Singaporeans has high blood pressure.
Kidney Disease Prevention
1 in 3 adults are at risk of kidney disease. The main risk factors are diabetes and high blood pressure. Patients with a family history of kidney failure are also at risk. Although kidney disease often has no symptoms, it can easily be detected with a simple urine or blood test. Early detection and treatment can slow or prevent the progression of kidney disease.
Another simple test, the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) effectively tests your kidney function, that is, how well your kidneys are working in removing wastes from your blood.
A simple urine test called the Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR) can be carried out to determine the amount of a type of protein, albumin, that is in your urine.
How do I know I have Kidney Disease?
Our kidneys are important in removing waste from our body. In addition, it is important in regulation of the balance of water and electrolytes in our body. It is also involved in the production of various hormones for blood production, healthy bones and blood pressure control. Almost one in 10 adults have chronic kidney disease. If not managed early, it often leads to kidney failyre and our body is thus unable to eliminate waste products. It is important to know that the symptoms are not obvious. However, listed below are some common things we should look out for. These include:
Feeling more tired or having trouble concentrating or having less energy
Decrease in appetite and lost of weight
Not sleeping well, and often with muscle cramps at night
Persistent generalized dry and itchy skin
Puffiness of eyes, especially in the morning, or swelling of the feet and ankles
Urine which has blood or is cloudy, tea-coloured urine or with excessive foaming
Need to urinate more often, especially at night
Change in urine output or difficulty in passing urine
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Main cause of Kidney Disease?
The main cause of kidney failure in Singapore is diabetes mellitus which accounts for more than 50% of the cases. Other common causes that may affect the kidneys high blood pressurewhich may show up as headaches,visual disturbances or nausea. In addition, recurring urinary tract infection or obstruction caused by kidney stones may also lead to kidney disease. An enlarged prostate in elderly males may also be a causativ efactor.